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Extract Brewing Tutorial
Gluten Free Home Brewing is the only homebrew store dedicated to your brewing needs. Shop Our Store to buy ingredients for your recipe or buy a Recipe Kit.
Introduction to Gluten Free Brewing
by Brian Kolodzinski
Brewing beer can be as easy or as complicated as you want to make it. You can buy a kit with all the ingredients in pre-measured amounts and follow the step-by-step instructions, or you can buy ingredients and follow a recipe. Gluten Free Home Brewing offers extract, partial-mash and all-grain recipe kits, as well as most other ingredients for your adventures in gluten free brewing. Regardless, the basic concept of brewing beer is the same even when compared to traditional non gluten free beer.
It is important to remember that because gluten free brewing is using different ingredients to brew beer, it can be difficult to copy the style of traditional beers. Just like in cooking a meal, when you substitute an ingredient you may get vastly different results. The gluten free home brewer uses multiple gluten free ingredients in attempt to achieve an approximate copy of the traditional non gluten free ingredients.
The following are the approximate equivalent gluten free grain by common beer grain as matched by nutritional information:
Wheat = Millet, Teff
Barley = Sorghum, Chestnuts
Rye = Buckwheat
Oats = GF Oats, Quinoa, Amaranth
Minimal equipment needed for brewing beer:
- 20 qt. brew kettle
- large metal stirring spoon
- measuring spoon set
- glass measuring cup
- food-grade plastic bucket or glass carboy
- additional food-grade plastic bucket or glass carboy
- wort chiller
- wort chiller pump
- metal fine mesh strainer
- brewing siphon
- digital scale
- reusable nylon mess bag
Reading a Recipe
In order to brew beer it is important to be able to read a recipe and know some basic terminology. Typically when you read a recipe there will be an ingredient list which may include a grain bill. A grain bill is simply a list of just the grains used in a recipe, and will only be included in partial mash or all grain recipes. Partial mash recipes are those recipes that use a combination of grains and extracts to produce the fermentable sugars needed to make beer; while all grain recipes solely relies on grains to produce the fermentable sugars. If a beer does not use any grains it is an extract recipe, meaning it uses syrup and solid sources of fermentable sugars.
Most recipes will include some of the following information:
- ABV: Alcohol By Volume.
- Boil: Total amount of time which the wort boils.
- Final Gravity (FG): The ending gravity after fermentation, used to calculate the alcohol content of the finished beer.
- IBU: International Bitterness Units are the measure of bitterness in the beer.
- Original Gravity (OG): The starting gravity prior to fermentation attributes to the potential alcohol content of the finished beer.
- Primary Ferment: Refers to the time the finished wort ferments following the brewing process.
- Secondary Ferment: Refers to the time the finished wort ferments after primary fermentation.
- SRM : Standard Reference Method for determining the color of the beer; also used to describe the color of an ingredient such as malts and grains.
- Yield: The final volume of beer collected after conclusion of the brewing and fermentation processes.
The typical recipe will list the ingredients in the order in which they will be used in the brewing process. And because timing is critical to the brewing process, the ingredient will be accompanied by the time in the process that the ingredient is used. However, when brewing beer, the time starts at the maximum boil time and counts backwards. Therefore an ingredient that is used first, or at the start of the boil, may be denoted with “60 minutes”; while subsequent ingredients will be denoted with a time less than the first ingredient.
Brewing Recommendations - Updated April 2018
Brew In A Bag (BIAB): Conventionally, the BIAB method combines the total grain bill with the strike water to produce the mash. The calculations need to be precise because when you pull the bag of grain out of the kettle, the target preboil volume is left behind. We conducted a series of BIAB test batches which we wrote about on our blog. We are working on specific recommendations, but in the mean time we recommend you read our latest blog 'BIABing with Anthony from Texas'. What we did learn from our test batches is this method creates a much dirtier wort because the grain bill cannot act as a filter as it does in a conventional mash tun. This unfiltered wort results in a lot of additional trub that needs to be included in the recipe calculations. Also, because there is no sparge, a higher amount of fermentable sugars remains left behind in the grain bill. This may require using a larger grain bill to compensate for this loss.
Enzymes: We conducted a series of test batches using different amounts of different enzymes and at this time recommend Termamyl, SEBAmyl BAL 100 and SEBAmyl L. Either the Termamyl or SEBAmyl BAL 100 must be used in conjunction with SEBAmyl L or you will not get fermentable sugars. Remember, gluten free malts have little to no natural enzyme activity; and require the addition of enzymes to the mash in order to turn starch into sugar for the yeast to convert into alcohol. No enzymes = No sugar = No alcohol! We have other enzymes that we will continue to test and will report our findings on our blog; and update our brewing recommendations as appropriate.
Grain Absorption Rate: We recently collaborated with an undergraduate senior chemistry student, Ben Barnes, from Southern Oregon University to ascertain the water absorption rate of each style of gluten free malt. Each sample of buckwheat, millet and “naked” rice malts included 15% rice hulls; while rice malt (the non-“naked” variety) naturally contains 37.5% rice hulls. They were each separately “mashed” for 120 minutes and then carefully measured to determine how much water was absorbed by the malt. Please read the findings on our blog: 'Assessment of Water Absorption Across Various Gluten-Free Grains'
Grain To Hull Ratio: All gluten free grains contain a hull. However, the hull of millet and buckwheat is very minimal as compared to rice. Hulls provide circulation during the mash and filtration during lautering. Millet and buckwheat require the addition of 10-15% rice hulls to the grain bill to ensure proper circulation and filtration. Rice malt on the other hand has a surplus of hulls. Rice malt contains approximately 62.5% grain to 37.5% hull. The exception to this is “naked” rice malt which has had the hull removed. You can use this ratio information to calculate how much hull you are obtaining from rice malt in your grain bill; and deduct that amount from the rice hulls you would otherwise need to add to millet and buckwheat malt.
Partial Mash: Conventionally, partial mash brewing consists of steeping a small amount of malt in water for a short period of time before adding an extract to create your wort. We recently conducted a series of test batches using a 2 gallon cooler mash tun and think it could be a great addition to the partial mash brewing method. In theory, by conducting a mini single infusion mash you will convert the starch in the malt into sugar, and allow the malts more of an opportunity to impart flavor while also increasing maltiness and mouthiness. This method would fully utilize the malts giving you the most bang for your buck; and reduce the amount of sorghum syrup required since you would actually get some fermentable sugar from the malts! We are referring to this process as “Partial Grain”.
Water To Grain Ratio: We have been recommending a ratio of 1 quart water to 1 pound grain for the last several years. While conducting a series of BIAB test batches, we noticed a significant reduction in conversion. Later, fellow GFHBer Anthony from Texas confirmed our findings that excessively thin mash conditions dilute the enzymes requiring liberal amounts of enzymes to achieve the desired efficiency. Please read the findings on our blog: ‘BIABing with Anthony from Texas’ . We recently ascertained the water absorption rates of gluten free malts which findings can also be found on our blog: ‘Assessment of Water Absorption Across Various Gluten-Free Grains’ . We now recommend 1 to 1.25 quarts water, or greater, to 1 pound of grain as appropriate for the specific grain bill.
Yeast Nutrient: We recommend you use ½ tsp yeast nutrient per gallon to ensure active fermentation for all gluten free beers regardless of brewing method. Previously we believed yeast nutrient was necessary for extract and partial mash brewing only. We intend to conduct a new series of test batches to validate our observations; but at this time we are making this recommendation based on our observations of fermentation activity when using and not using yeast nutrient.
Please follow our progress on our blog and tutorials for updated brewing recommendations!
Now that you have your equipment and can read the recipe, you are ready to brew an extract beer. The next step is to buy a kit or ingredients. You will have more brewing options when buying the ingredients yourself outside of a kit. While kits are convenient and easy to use, you will be limited as to the types of beers you can make with a kit simply due to the sheer number of recipes available and the limited numbers of kits. When you buy supplies for a beer recipe, use the recipe as a shopping list. You will most likely need to buy more supplies than the recipe calls for, and have to measure the amounts out when you get home. A digital scale is the most precise way of doing this. And don’t worry about the extra ingredients as you can always use them in future beers.
Before you start brewing it is important to first clean you work area and sanitize all the equipment. Sanitation is the most critical step in brewing as it prevents unwanted contaminants, mainly bacteria and wild yeasts, from getting into your beer and destroying it. Contaminated beer can be dangerous to consume and should always be disposed of. Sanitize equipment using a sanitizer designed specifically for brewing, and avoid using bleach. Bleach is alright in an emergency but should not be considered for use as a regular sanitizer. A good idea is to buy a spray bottle and fill it with sanitizer as well. Sometimes you may forget a piece of equipment and need to sanitize it quickly.
You want to brew as much wort as possible. Some instructions will only call for boiling about three gallons of water in the brew kettle. Then after brewing has completed you would have to top off the primary fermentation container with water to achieve the final desired volume. The problem with this strategy is that gluten free beer is inherently thinner, or waterier, than non gluten free beer. And watering down the wort only exacerbates the problem. Therefore, you want to add as much water to the brew kettle as possible to achieve the target volume taking into account water displacement of the ingredients, expansion of the water when it is heated, and evaporation of the wort when boiling. You also want to leave a little room to ensure the wort does not boil over. The wort tends to boil over when it achieves a hot break (caused by proteins in the wort that coagulate due to the rolling action of the boil) or after the first additions of hops.
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- Although your household stove top is sufficient to bring the wort to a boil, many home brewers prefer to use a propane burner. This obviously should only be used outdoors. The advantage to a propane burner is the surface is larger than that of your stove top burner, and is flat. They are designed to be used with a large vessel such as a brew kettle. Another advantage, for those of use that have electric stoves, is propane heat is more instantaneous and offers better control over the temperature of the wort. Finally, in the event that the wort boils over, cleanup will be much simpler. Remember, in the simplest terms, you are boiling sugar water. And sugar burns, and will burn to your stove top leaving you with a very messy cleanup job.
- Fill brew kettle with the appropriate amount of water and place on heat source.
- While water is coming to boil, prepare the remaining ingredients in premeasured amounts so they may be added at the appropriate times.
- Once the water temperature is near a boil, add the extract as instructed per the recipe. The temperature of the extract will reduce the water temperature and you will again need to allow it to return to a boil.
- Allow the water and extract, which is now your wort, to come to a rolling boil. This is the stage that you are waiting for a hot break, and may occur for 5 minutes. This is also the first stage that your wort may boil over. A boil over is when the hot break billows over the side of the brew kettle. Reduce the temperature of the wort to control.
- After the hot break has been achieved and you have allowed the wort to boil for up to five minutes, you are ready for the first addition of your hops or other ingredient. When you add your first addition of hops, start by only adding a small amount. The alpha acids in the hops may cause a boil over. You may notice the head of the wort temporarily build up again. Once the head has subsided it is safe to add the rest of the hops addition. Add all ingredients as instructed per the recipe.
- Before the boil time has expired, you will want to prepare you ice bath or wort chiller. An ice bath is a way to cool the wort without any additional equipment. It is exactly what it sounds like, a sink of ice cold water that you place the brew kettle. You never want to allow any water or other contaminates in your wort. With an ice bath, you bring down the temperature of the wort by using cold water to draw the heat out of the wort. This uses a lot of water and a lot of ice, and does take some time to complete. Another option is to use a wort chiller to pump ice cold water through the wort and draw out the heat. A wort chill conducts temperature more efficiently, and with a constant supply of cold water it reduces the temperature of the wort very quickly.
- Once the boil time has expired, immediately cover the wort and begin to bring down the temperature of the wort. This is the stage that the wort is most vulnerable to contaminants such as bacteria and wild yeast. Make sure anything the wort comes into contact with is sanitized.
- Before the temperature of the wort has reached the range which you will pitch your yeast, you first must prepare the yeast. Some yeast may be dry pitched, meaning the contents may be poured directly into the wort. While other yeasts need to be prepared or started. Follow the instructions on the yeast package.
- Once the wort has reached the temperature range which the yeast me be pitched, it can be transferred to the primary fermentation vessel. You can rack the wort using a siphon, or pour the wort using a metal fine mesh strainer. Either way, you want to leave as much sediment behind while collecting as much wort as possible.
- Now that the wort has been transferred to the primary fermentation vessel, it needs to be prepared for the yeast. Using a medal spoon or whisk, stir the wort vigorously for 4-5 minutes. This aerates the wort and should produce a frothy head.
- Pitch the yeast.
- Cover the primary fermentation vessel and insert the airlock.
- Allow the wort to sit undisturbed in a dark area at 68-70 degrees for at least one week. This will also be the most active period of fermenting.
- After one week you may rack the wort to a secondary fermenting container. After another week the wort can be racked to a bottling bucket and bottled with priming sugar where it will continue to age.
Congratulations, you have just brewed your first extract brew!